Slow fire, accelerated fire, quick fire
Example: Krupp 87mm field gun M. 1886 and De Bange 80mm field gun M. 1885, adopted respectively by Bulgars and Serbs at the end of 19th century. At first they fired black powder, but were later adapted to smokeless powder.
1. The gun was rigidly attached to the carriage, both recoiling together; the recoil was not controlled.
2. The sights were attached to the gun; telescopic or other delicate sights had to be removed before firing.
3. The gun crew had to stand aside to avoid recoil; the gun fired by long lanyard. Gun shields were not provided, since they were of little use.
4. The gun had to be run back by hand to firing position, and relaid after each shot.
5. The ammunition was in two parts, loaded separately; the fuze was punched by hand.
6. There was no provision for indirect fire.
Example: Putilov 76.2mm field gun M. 1900 and Arisaka 75mm field gun Meiji 31 (M. 1898), used respectively by Russians and Japaneses during the war in Manchuria (1904-05).
1. The gun was rigidly attached to the carriage, both recoiling together, but the recoil was controlled by wheel shoes and springs in trail.
2. The sights were attached to gun, and were removed before firing.
3. The gun fired by lanyard; the crew must move to avoid recoil, but only slightly. Gun shields were not provided, but they were found useful, and in many cases they were improvised in the field.
4. The gun was run approximately into position by trail springs, but had to be relaid for each shot.
5. The ammunition was in two parts; the fuze was set mechanically.
6. The gun was fitted with a mechanism provided for indirect fire.
Example: Schneider 75mm field gun M. 1904 and Krupp 75mm field gun M. 1903, adopted respectively by Bulgarians and Turks at the beginning of 20th century.
1. The gun was mounted in the cradle, on which it recoiled, the carriage was fixed after the first shot.
2. The sights were attached to the carriage, and remained in seat during firing, constantly directed upon the aiming point.
3. The gun crew remained at posts during fire, protected by shields attached to the gun carriage and to the caisson.
4. The gun did not have to be run back by hand, but returned automatically to firing position; the relaying was not necessary.
5. The ammunition was fixed; the fuze was set mechanically.
6. The mechanism was so arranged that indirect fire was as accurate and easy as direct.