Fire at different targets



Kind of fire

Infantry in scattered formation

Until the chain is away from the firing artillery more than 1500 m, the fire is directed at the reserves or at other concentrated units.

At shorter distances, if the fire of the chain is powerful, the whole battery fires at it, otherwise, one platoon fires at the reserves.


The fire is directed to the guns: when good results has been obtained, a platoon or even the whole battery shifs its fire to the limbers.

Guns without shield

Fire with shrapnel with time fuze until the servants are near around the guns.

Guns with shield


At less than 2500 m for field artillery and more than 2000 m for mountain artillery : fire with H.E. shell.

At greater range or when the observation is not good : accurate adjustment and fire with shrapnel with time fuze set for low burst.

If a movement of the servants around the guns is seen, every gun fired 1-2 shrapnel of storm of fire.

Limbers and ammunition wagons

Fire with shrapnel with time fuze set for low burst.

Animate targets behind shelters


Accurate adjustment at the edge of the shelter, storm of fire with time shrapnel, then the edge is shelled with slow fire at a set speed to keep shooters from leaning over the shelter.

Targets behind the high shelter of field fortifications

Time shrapnel fire from howitzers at the maximum angle of incidence for the given distance or from mountain guns, placed at a suitable distance and obliquely with respect to the front of the fortification.

Rampart of field fortifications and dugouts

Howitzers fire with torpedo shell to lower the embankment crests to facilitate firing on animate targets that will find little dead space in the bottom cover.

Field fortifications

Firing is useful only when infantry is near the fortification and forces the enemy to take up positions and open fire.

House walls of a settlement

Fire with H.E. or torpedo shell : the howitzers fire at the most solid buildings and fences, the field and mountain guns to the others.

Common shell or impact shrapnel of not quick firing guns can set on fire the wicker walls of houses, pens and barns.

Impact shrapnel can fire also at brick and stone walls up to 50 cm thick.

Time shrapnel is used to shell streets, squares, courtyards and outskirts.

Target behind a ridge, that cannot be observed from anywhere

Adjustment at the ridge, then the area behind is shelled with progressive fire at an order or fire in succession, changing the combustion of the fuze after every series according to the grade of the slope from the crest onwards.

Artillery revealed by its flashes, when the area in front and behind it is observable

The battery commander carefully marks by the flashes and in relation to local objects the width of the front and the closest observable area in front of and behind the target; adjustment is done to see whether the bursts are short or long and how deep the unobservable area is; fire for effect is done by battery series or by progressive fire at an order.

A group of leaders or observers

The range is quickly determined, then a battery series is fired with fuze set for low burst and the gun whose direction is closest to the target open a progressive fire with fuze set for a normal medium height.

Targets at ranges less than 1000 m

Adjustment with a battery series with time fuze set for low burst to verify the position of the enemy, then fire for effect according to the nature of the target.

Captive balloon

Range is measured with the battery telescope, when the balloon is brought in the 100 m bracket; firing is done with a battery series of rapid time fire at the short limit and at the middle of the bracket.

Shooting is considered good when the splashes occurred in front of and slightly above the center of the balloon, albeit at larger intervals.

To observe the bursts in the distance from the balloon, observers are sent forward from both sides of the battery, reporting their observations with flags.


1) Firing with time shrapnel with fuze set for low burst, the average height must be from 0 to 1 millièmes, in all other cases the average height is from 2 to 4 millièmes.

2) Firing from a covered position, when the target enters the dead space in front of the cover and there is no time to move the guns forward, they , they fire at the minimum elevation for the cover and the fuze gradually shortens according to enemy movement. However, such shooting must be used only in exceptional cases and when the place behind the cover is favorable, otherwise it is ineffective.

3) To estimate the reports of the observers, it should be taken into account that bursts are shown from to the opposite side of the observer i.e. to the right observer – to the left of the target, and to the left observer – to the right. Long bursts are visible from the side of the observer. Since a shot for which both observers give the same report had also a lateral deflection observed by the battery commander, if both the observers point to the left, and the commander sees that the burst is to the left of the target, the report of the right observer must be taken as to the distance, and the burst comes from here.